At the COR-26 climate summit in Glasgow, even though a hundred countries have agreed to stop deforestation by 2030, the current situation is worrying. Despite all the rules and regulations, deforestation is going on fast. The United Nations says that 420 million hectares (one billion acres) of forest have been destroyed since 1990. The main reason for this is agriculture. It is also not that efforts have been made to save the forests in the past as well. In 2014 the United Nations announced an agreement to halve deforestation by 2020 and end it by 2030. Then, in 2017 it set another goal of increasing forested land worldwide by 3% by 2030. But deforestation continued at ‘an alarming rate’, with Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Indonesia among the worst-affected countries, according to a 2019 report. where deforestation continues. Let us know how much forest area has been reduced in the world.
1- The world’s forests are still shrinking in size
– The average area of forest is being destroyed per decade (hectare)
1990-2000 – 7.8 million hectares
2000-2010- 5.2 million hectares
2010-2020- 4.7 million hectares
2- Amazon deforestation highest since 2008-
– Annual rate in square kilometers
3- Top four countries with loss of forests
– Statistics : 2002 to 2020 (in hectares)
Brazil – 26.2 million hectares
Indonesia – 9.7 million hectares
Democratic Republic of the Congo – 5.3 million hectares
Bolivia – 3 million hectares
4- In two decades the forest area of Indonesia decreased by 10 million acres
– Forest loss between 2001 and 2020 (in hectares)
Two main causes of deforestation
1. Agricultural Extension:
Agricultural expansion is the main reason for deforestation. Deforestation is increasing at an alarming rate due to increased demand for food grains and commodities like soybean and palm oil. It is estimated that more than 40% of the forests all over the world have been cleared to meet the demands of agriculture and timber. The forest area is being cleared to promote commercial crops such as palm oil plantations. Deforestation occurs because the forest land is not economically viable.
2- Mining Operations :
People are also cutting forests for oil and coal mining operations. Large-scale mining operations cause major deforestation through the clearing of forests. The construction of roads in the forests is also responsible for deforestation.
Status of forest area in India
According to the report of Forest Survey of India-2019, the total forest cover of the country is 7,12,249 sq km. Which is 67% of the geographical area of the country. The tree cover of the country is 95,027 sq. km. which is 2.89% of the geographical area. The total forest and tree cover of the country is 8,07,276 sq km. Which is 56% of the geographical area of the country. It covers an area of 3,976 sq km at the national level as compared to the Forest Survey of India-2017. (56%) forest cover, 1,212 sq. km. (1.29%) tree cover and 5,188 sq. km. (0.65%) shows an increase in forest and tree cover.